PREAMBLE.
TO THE END, that justice be established, public order
maintained, and liberty perpetuated; WE, the People of the State
of Indiana, grateful to ALMIGHTY GOD for the free exercise
of the right to choose our own form of government, do ordain
this Constitution.

ARTICLE 1.
Bill of Rights.

Section 1. WE DECLARE, That all people are created equal;
that they are endowed by their CREATOR with certain
inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the
pursuit of happiness; that all power is inherent in the people;
and that all free governments are, and of right ought to be,
founded on their authority, and instituted for their peace, safety,
and well-being. For the advancement of these ends, the people
have, at all times, an indefeasible right to alter and reform their
government.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984).

Section 2. All people shall be secured in the natural right to
worship ALMIGHTY GOD, according to the dictates of their
own consciences.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984).

Section 3. No law shall, in any case whatever, control the
free exercise and enjoyment of religious opinions, or interfere
with the rights of conscience.

Section 4. No preference shall be given, by law, to any creed,
religious society, or mode of worship; and no person shall be
compelled to attend, erect, or support, any place of worship, or
to maintain any ministry, against his consent.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984).

Section 5. No religious test shall be required, as a
qualification for any office of trust or profit.

Section 6. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, for
the benefit of any religious or theological institution.

Section 7. No person shall be rendered incompetent as a
witness, in consequence of his opinions on matters of religion.

Section 8. The mode of administering an oath or affirmation,
shall be such as may be most consistent with, and binding upon,
the conscience of the person, to whom such oath or affirmation
may be administered.

Section 9. No law shall be passed, restraining the free
interchange of thought and opinion, or restricting the right to
speak, write, or print, freely, on any subject whatever: but for
the abuse of that right, every person shall be responsible.

Section 10. In all prosecutions for libel, the truth of the
matters alleged to be libellous, may be given in justification.

Section 11. The right of the people to be secure in their
persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable
search or seizure, shall not be violated; and no warrant shall
issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or
affirmation, and particularlydescribing the place to be searched,
and the person or thing to be seized.

Section 12. All courts shall be open; and every person, for
injury done to him in his person, property, or reputation, shall
have remedy by due course of law. Justice shall be administered
freely, and without purchase; completely, and without denial;
speedily, and without delay.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984).

Section 13. (a) In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall
have the right to a public trial, by an impartial jury, in the
county in which the offense shall have been committed; to be
heard by himself and counsel; to demand the nature and cause
of the accusation against him, and to have a copy thereof; to
meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process
for obtaining witnesses in his favor.
(b) Victims of crime, as defined by law, shall have the right
to be treated with fairness, dignity, and respect throughout the
criminal justice process; and, as defined by law, to be informed
of and present during public hearings and to confer with the
prosecution, to the extent that exercising these rights does not
infringe upon the constitutional rights of the accused.
(History: As Amended November 5, 1996).

Section 14. No person shall be put in jeopardy twice for the
same offense. No person, in any criminal prosecution, shall be
compelled to testify against himself.

Section 15. No person arrested, or confined in jail, shall be
treated with unnecessary rigor.

Section 16. Excessive bail shall not be required. Excessive
fines shall not be imposed.Cruel and unusual punishments shall
not be inflicted. All penalties shall be proportioned to the nature
of the offense.

Section 17. Offenses, other than murder or treason, shall be
bailable by sufficient sureties. Murder or treason shall not be
bailable, when the proof is evident, or the presumption strong.

Section 18. The penal code shall be founded on the
principles of reformation, and not of vindictive justice.

Section 19. In all criminal cases whatever, the juryshall have
the right to determine the law and the facts.

Section 20. In all civil cases, the right of trial by jury shall
remain inviolate.

Section 21. No person’s particular services shall be
demanded, without just compensation. No person’s property
shall be taken by law, without just compensation; nor, except in
case of the State, without such compensation first assessed and
tendered.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984).

Section 22. The privilege of the debtor to enjoy the necessary
comforts of life, shall be recognized by wholesome laws,
exempting a reasonable amount of property from seizure or
sale, for the payment of any debt or liability hereafter
contracted: and there shall be no imprisonment for debt, except
in case of fraud.

Section 23. The General Assembly shall not grant to any
citizen, or class of citizens, privileges or immunities, which,
upon the same terms, shall not equally belong to all citizens.

Section 24. No ex post facto law, or law impairing the
obligation of contracts, shall ever be passed.

Section 25. No law shall be passed, the taking effect of
which shall be made to depend upon any authority, except as
provided in this Constitution.

Section 26. The operation of the laws shall never be
suspended, except by the authority of the General Assembly.

Section 27. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall
not be suspended, except in case of rebellion or invasion; and
then, only if the public safety demand it.

Section 28. Treason against the State shall consist only in
levying war against it, and in giving aid and comfort to its
enemies.

Section 29. No person shall be convicted of treason, except
on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or upon
his confession in open court.

Section 30. No conviction shall work corruption of blood, or
forfeiture of estate.

Section 31. No law shall restrain any of the inhabitants of the
State from assembling together in a peaceable manner, to
consult for their common good; nor from instructing their
representatives; nor from applying to the General Assembly for
redress of grievances.

Section 32. The people shall have a right to bear arms, for
the defense of themselves and the State.

Section 33. The military shall be kept in strict subordination
to the civil power.

Section 34. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered
in any house, without the consent of the owner; nor, in time of
war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Section 35. The General Assembly shall not grant any title of
nobility, nor confer hereditary distinctions.

Section 36. Emigration from the State shall not be
prohibited.

Section 37. There shall be neither slavery, nor involuntary
servitude, within the State, otherwise than for the punishment
of crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984).

Section 39. (a) The right to hunt, fish, and harvest wildlife:
(1) is a valued part of Indiana’s heritage; and
(2) shall be forever preserved for the public good.
(b) The people have a right, which includes the right to use
traditional methods, to hunt, fish, and harvest wildlife, subject
only to the laws prescribed by the General Assembly and rules
prescribed by virtue of the authority of the General Assembly
to:
(1) promote wildlife conservation and management; and
(2) preserve the future of hunting and fishing.
(c) Hunting and fishing shall be a preferred means of
managing and controlling wildlife.
(d) This section shall not be construed to limit the
application of any provision of law relating to trespass or
property rights.
(History: As Amended November 8, 2016).

ARTICLE 2.
Suffrage and Election.

Section 1. All elections shall be free and equal.

Section 2. (a) A citizen of the United States who is at least
eighteen (18) years of age and who has been a resident of a
precinct thirty(30) days immediatelypreceding an election may
vote in that precinct at the election.
(b) A citizen may not be disenfranchised under subsection
(a), if the citizen is entitled to vote in a precinct under
subsection (c) or federal law.
(c) The General Assembly may provide that a citizen who
ceases to be a resident of a precinct before an election may vote
in a precinct where the citizen previously resided if, on the date
of the election, the citizen’s name appears on the registration
rolls for the precinct.
(History: As Amended March 14, 1881; September 6, 1921;
November 2, 1976; November 6, 1984; November 3, 1998).

Section 3.
(History: Repealed November 3, 1998).

Section 4. No person shall be deemed to have lost his
residence in the State, by reason of his absence, either on
business of this State or of the United States.

Section 5.
(History: Repealed March 14, 1881).

Section 6. Every person shall be disqualified from holding
office, during the term for which he may have been elected,
who shall have given or offered a bribe, threat, or reward, to
procure his election.

Section 7.
(History: Repealed November 6, 1984).

Section 8. The General Assembly shall have power to
deprive of the right of suffrage, and to render ineligible, any
person convicted of an infamous crime.

Section 9. No person holding a lucrative office or
appointment under the United States or under this State is
eligible to a seat in the General Assembly; and no person may
hold more than one lucrative office at the same time, except as
expressly permitted in this Constitution. Offices in the militia
to which there is attached no annual salary shall not be deemed
lucrative.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984).

Section 10. No person who may hereafter be a collector or
holder of public moneys, shall be eligible to any office of trust
or profit, until he shall have accounted for, and paid over,
according to law, all sums for which he may be liable.

Section 11. In all cases in which it is provided, that an office
shall not be filled by the same person more than a certain
number of years continuously, an appointment pro tempore
shall not be reckoned a part of that term.

Section 12. In all cases, except treason, felony, and breach
of the peace, electors shall be free from arrest, in going to
elections, during their attendance there, and in returning from
the same.

Section 13. All elections by the People shall be by ballot;
and all elections by the General Assembly, or by either branch
thereof, shall be viva voce.

Section 14. (a) General elections shall be held on the first
Tuesday after the first Monday in November.
(b) The General Assembly may provide by law for the
election of all judges of courts of general and appellate
jurisdiction, by an election to be held for such officers only, at
which time no other officer shall be voted for.
(c) The General Assembly shall provide for the registration
of all persons entitled to vote.
(History: As Amended March 14, 1881; Amended November 3,
1998).

ARTICLE 3.
Distribution of Powers.

Section 1. The powers of the Government are divided into
three separate departments; the Legislative, the Executive
including the Administrative, and the Judicial: and no person,
charged with official duties under one of these departments,
shall exercise any of the functions of another, except as in this
Constitution expressly provided.

ARTICLE 4.
Legislative.

Section 1. The Legislative authority of the State shall be
vested in a General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate
and a House of Representatives. The style of everylaw shall be:
“Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of
Indiana”; and no law shall be enacted, except by bill.

Section 2. The Senate shall not exceed fifty, nor the House
of Representatives one hundred members; and they shall be
chosen by the electors of the respective districts into which the
State may, from time to time, be divided.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984).

Section 3. Senators shall be elected for the term of four
years, and Representatives for the term of two years, from the
day next after their general election. One half of the Senators,
as nearly as possible, shall be elected biennially.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984).

Section 4. The General Assemblymay provide by law for the
filling of such vacancies as may occur in the General Assembly.
(History: As Amended March 14, 1881; November 6, 1984).

Section 5. The General Assembly elected during the year in
which a federal decennial census is taken shall fix by law the
number of Senators and Representatives and apportion them
among districts according to the number of inhabitants in each
district, as revealed by that federal decennial census. The
territory in each district shall be contiguous.
(History: As amended March 14, 1881; November 6, 1984).

Section 6.
(History: Repealed November 6, 1984).

Section 7. No person shall be a Senator or a Representative,
who, at the time of his election, is not a citizen of the United
States; nor any one who has not been for two years next
preceding his election, an inhabitant of this State, and, for one
year next preceding his election, an inhabitant of the district
whence he may be chosen. Senators shall be at least
twenty-five, and Representatives at least twenty-one years of
age.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984).

Section 8. Senators and Representatives, in all cases except
treason, felony, and breach of the peace, shall be privileged
from arrest, during the session of the General Assembly, and in
going to and returning from the same; and shall not be subject
to any civil process, during the session of the General
Assembly, nor during the fifteen days next before the
commencement thereof. For any speech or debate in either
House, a member shall not be questioned in any other place.

Section 9. The sessions of the General Assembly shall be
held at the capitol of the State, commencing on the Tuesday
next after the second Monday in January of each year in which
the General Assembly meets unless a different day or place
shall have been appointed by law. But if, in the opinion of the
Governor, the public welfare shall require it, he may, at any
time by proclamation, call a special session. The length and
frequency of the sessions of the General Assembly shall be
fixed by law.
(History:AsAmended November 3, 1970. The schedule adopted
with the 1970 amendment to Article 4, Section 9 was stricken
out by the November 6, 1984, amendment).

Section 10. Each House, when assembled, shall choose its
own officers, the President of the Senate excepted; judge the
elections, qualifications, and returns of its own members;
determine its rules of proceeding, and sit upon its own
adjournment. But neither House shall, without the consent of
the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any place
other than that in which it may be sitting.

Section 11. Two-thirds of each House shall constitute a
quorum to do business; but a smaller number may meet,
adjourn from day to day, and compel the attendance of absent
members. A quorum being in attendance, if either House fail to
effect an organization within the first five days thereafter, the
members of the House so failing, shall be entitled to no
compensation, from the end of the said five days until an
organization shall have been effected.

Section 12. Each House shall keep a journal of its
proceedings, and publish the same. The yeas and nays, on any
question, shall, at the request of any two members, be entered,
together with the names of the members demanding the same,
on the journal; Provided, that on a motion to adjourn, it shall
require one-tenth of the members present to order the yeas and
nays.

Section 13. The doors of each House, and of Committees of
the Whole, shall be kept open, except in such cases, as, in the
opinion of either House, may require secrecy.

Section 14. Either House may punish its members for
disorderly behavior, and may, with the concurrence of
two-thirds, expel a member; but not a second time for the same
cause.

Section 15. Either House, during its session, may punish, by
imprisonment, any person not a member, who shall have been
guilty of disrespect to the House, bydisorderlyor contemptuous
behavior, in its presence; but such imprisonment shall not, at
any one time, exceed twenty-four hours.

Section 16. Each House shall have all powers, necessary for
a branch of the Legislative department of a free and
independent State.

Section 17. Bills may originate in either House, but may be
amended or rejected in the other; except that bills for raising
revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives.

Section 18. Every bill shall be read, by title, on three several
days, in each House; unless, in case of emergency, two-thirds
of the House where such bill may be pending shall, by a vote of
yeas and nays, deem it expedient to dispense with this rule; but
the reading of a bill, by title, on its final passage, shall, in no
case, be dispensed with; and the vote on the passage of every
bill or joint resolution shall be taken by yeas and nays.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984).

Section 19. An act, except an act for the codification,
revision or rearrangement of laws, shall be confined to one
subject and matters properly connected therewith.
(History: As Amended November 8, 1960; November 5, 1974).

Section 20. Every act and joint resolution shall be plainly
worded, avoiding, as far as practicable, the use of technical
terms.

Section 21.
(History: Repealed November 8, 1960).

Section 22. The General Assembly shall not pass local or
special laws:
Providing for the punishment of crimes and misdemeanors;
Regulating the practice in courts of justice;
Providing for changing the venue in civil and criminal cases;
Granting divorces;
Changing the names of persons;
Providing for laying out, opening, and working on,
highways, and for the election or appointment of supervisors;
Vacating roads, town plats, streets, alleys, and public
squares;
Summoning and empaneling grand and petit juries, and
providing for their compensation;
Regulating county and township business;
Regulating the election of county and township officers and
their compensation;
Providing for the assessment and collection of taxes for
State, county, township, or road purposes;
Providing for the support of common schools, or the
preservation of school funds;
Relating to fees or salaries, except that the laws may be so
made as to grade the compensation of officers in proportion to
the population and the necessary services required;
Relating to interest on money;
Providing for opening and conducting elections of State,
county, or township officers, and designating the places of
voting;
Providing for the sale of real estate belonging to minors or
other persons laboring under legal disabilities, by executors,
administrators, guardians, or trustees.
(History: As Amended March 14, 1881; November 6, 1984).

Section 23. In all the cases enumerated in the preceding
section, and in all other cases where a general law can be made
applicable, all laws shall be general, and of uniform operation
throughout the State.

Section 24. Provision may be made, by general law, for
bringing suit against the State; but no special law authorizing
such suit to be brought, or making compensation to any person
claiming damages against the State, shall ever be passed.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984).

Section 25. A majority of all the members elected to each
House, shall be necessary to pass every bill or joint resolution;
and all bills and joint resolutions so passed, shall be signed by
the Presiding Officers of the respective Houses.

Section 26. Anymember of either House shall have the right
to protest, and to have his protest, with his reasons for dissent,
entered on the journal.

Section 27. Every statute shall be a public law, unless
otherwise declared in the statute itself.

Section 28. No act shall take effect, until the same shall have
been published and circulated in the several counties of the
State, by authority, except in case of emergency, which
emergency shall be declared in the preamble, or in the body, of
the law.

Section 29. The members of the General Assembly shall
receive for their services a compensation to be fixed by law; but
no increase of compensation shall take effect during the session
at which such increase may be made.
(History:AsAmended November 3, 1970. The schedule adopted
with the 1970 amendment to Article 4, Section 9 was stricken
out by the November 6, 1984, amendment).

Section 30. No Senator or Representative shall, during the
term for which he may have been elected, be eligible to any
office, the election to which is vested in the General Assembly;
nor shall he be appointed to any civil office of profit, which
shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall have
been increased, during such term; but this latter provision shall
not be construed to apply to any office elective by the People.

ARTICLE 5.
Executive.

Section 1. The executive power of the State shall be vested
in a Governor. He shall hold his office during four years, and
shall not be eligible more than eight years in any period of
twelve years.
(History: As Amended November 7, 1972).

Section 2. There shall be a Lieutenant Governor, who shall
hold his office during four years.

Section 3. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor shall be
elected at the times and places of choosing members of the
General Assembly.

Section 4. Each candidate for Lieutenant Governor shall run
jointly in the general election with a candidate for Governor,
and his name shall appear jointly on the ballot with the
candidate for Governor. Each vote cast for a candidate for
Governor shall be considered cast for the candidate for
Lieutenant Governor as well. The candidate for Lieutenant
Governor whose name appears on the ballot jointly with that of
the successful candidate for Governor shall be elected
Lieutenant Governor.
(History: As Amended November 5, 1974).

Section 5. In the event of a tie vote, the Governor and
Lieutenant Governor shall be elected from the candidates
having received the tie vote by the affirmative vote in joint
session of a majority of the combined membership of both
Houses as the first order of business after their organization.
(History: As Amended November 5, 1974).

Section 6. Contested elections for Governor or Lieutenant
Governor, shall be determined by the General Assembly, in
such manner as may be prescribed by law.

Section 7. No person shall be eligible to the office of
Governor or Lieutenant Governor, who shall not have been five
years a citizen of the United States, and also a resident of the
State of Indiana during the five years next preceding his
election; nor shall any person be eligible to either of the said
offices, who shall not have attained the age of thirty years.

Section 8. No member of Congress, or person holding any
office under the United States or under this State, shall fill the
office of Governor or Lieutenant Governor.

Section 9. The official term of the Governor and Lieutenant
Governor shall commence on the second Monday of January,
in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-three; and on
the same day every fourth year thereafter.

Section 10. (a) In case the Governor-elect fails to assume
office, or in case of the death or resignation of the Governor or
the Governor’s removal from office, the Lieutenant Governor
shall become Governor and hold office for the unexpired term
of the person whom the Lieutenant Governor succeeds. In case
the Governor is unable to discharge the powers and duties of
the office, the Lieutenant Governor shall discharge the powers
and duties of the office as Acting Governor.
(b) Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of Lieutenant
Governor, the Governor shall nominate a Lieutenant Governor
who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote in
each house of the General Assembly and hold office for the
unexpired term of the previous Lieutenant Governor. If the
General Assembly is not in session, the Governor shall call it
into special session to receive and act upon the Governor’s
nomination. In the event of the inability of the Lieutenant
Governor to discharge the powers and duties of the office, the
General Assembly may provide by law for the manner in which
a person shall be selected to act in the Lieutenant Governor’s
place and declare which powers and duties of the office such
person shall discharge.
(c) Whenever the Governor transmits to the President pro
tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of
Representatives the Governor’s written declaration that the
Governor is unable to discharge the powers and duties of the
office, and until the Governor transmits to them a written
declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be
discharged by the Lieutenant Governor as Acting Governor.
Thereafter, when the Governor transmits to the President pro
tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of
Representatives the Governor’s written declaration that no
inability exists, the Governor shall resume the powers and
duties of the office.
(d) Whenever the President pro tempore of the Senate and
the Speaker of the House of Representatives file with the
Supreme Court a written statement suggesting that the
Governor is unable to discharge the powers and duties of the
office, the Supreme Court shall meet within forty-eight hours to
decide the question and such decision shall be final. Thereafter,
whenever the Governor files with the Supreme Court the
Governor’s written declaration that no inability exists, the
Supreme Court shall meet within forty-eight hours to decide
whether such be the case and such decision shall be final. Upon
a decision that no inability exists, the Governor shall resume the
powers and duties of the office.
(e) Whenever there is a vacancy in both the office of
Governor and Lieutenant Governor, the General Assembly shall
convene in joint session forty-eight hours after such occurrence
and elect a Governor from and of the same political party as the
immediately past Governor by a majority vote of each house. If
either house of the General Assembly is unable to assemble a
quorum of its members because of vacancies in the membership
of that house, the General Assembly shall convene not later
than forty-eight hours after a sufficient number of the vacancies
are filled to provide a quorum of members for that house.
(f) An individual holding one (1) of the following offices
shall discharge the powers and duties of the governor if the
office of governor and the office of lieutenant governor are both
vacant, in the order listed:
(1) The speaker of the house of representatives.
(2) The president pro tempore of the senate, if the office
described in subdivision (1) is vacant.
(3) The treasurer of state, if the offices described in
subdivisions (1) and (2) are vacant.
(4) The auditor of state, if the offices described in
subdivisions (1) through (3) are vacant.
(5) The secretary of state, if the offices described in
subdivisions (1) through (4) are vacant.
(6) The state superintendent of public instruction, if the
offices described in subdivisions (1) through (5) are
vacant.
(g) An individual’s authority to discharge the governor’s
powers and duties under subsection (f) ends when the general
assembly fills the office of governor under this section.
(History: As Amended November 7, 1978; November 2, 2004).

Section 11. Whenever the Lieutenant Governor shall act as
Governor, or shall be unable to attend as President of the
Senate, the Senate shall elect one of its own members as
President for the occasion.

Section 12. The Governor shall be commander-in-chief of
the armed forces, and may call out such forces, to execute the
laws, or to suppress insurrection, or to repel invasion.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984).

Section 13. The Governor shall, from time to time, give to
the General Assembly information touching the condition of the
State, and recommend such measures as he shall judge to be
expedient.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984).

Section 14. (a) Every bill which shall have passed the
General Assembly shall be presented to the Governor. The
Governor shall have seven days after the day of presentment to
act upon such bill as follows:
(1) He may sign it, in which event it shall become a law.
(2) He may veto it:
(A) In the event of a veto while the General Assembly is in
session, he shall return such bill, with his objections,
within seven days of presentment, to the House in which it
originated. If the Governor does not return the bill within
seven days of presentment, the bill becomes a law
notwithstanding the veto.
(B) If the Governor returns the bill under clause (A), the
House in which the bill originated shall enter the
Governor’s objections at large upon its journals and
proceed to reconsider and vote upon whether to approve
the bill. The bill must be reconsidered and voted upon
within the time set out in clause (C). If, after such
reconsideration and vote, a majority of all the members
elected to that House shall approve the bill, it shall be sent,
with the Governor’s objections, to the other House, by
which it shall likewise be reconsidered and voted upon,
and, if approved by a majority of all the members elected
to that House, it shall be a law.
(C) If the Governor returns the bill under clause (A), the
General Assembly shall reconsider and vote upon the
approval of the bill before the final adjournment of the
next regular session of the General Assembly that follows
the regular or special session in which the bill was
originally passed. If the House in which the bill originated
does not approve the bill under clause (B), the other House
is not required to reconsider and vote upon the approval of
the bill. If, after voting, either House fails to approve the
bill within this time, the veto is sustained.
(D) In the event of a veto after final adjournment of a
session of the General Assembly, such bill shall be
returned by the Governor to the House in which it
originated on the first day that the General Assembly is in
session after such adjournment, which House shall proceed
in the same manner as with a bill vetoed before
adjournment. The bill must be reconsidered and voted
upon within the time set out in clause (C). If such bill is
not so returned, it shall be a law notwithstanding such veto.
(3) He may refuse to sign or veto such bill in which event it
shall become a law without his signature on the eighth day after
presentment to the Governor.
(b) Every bill presented to the Governor which is signed by
him or on which he fails to act within said seven days after
presentment shall be filed with the Secretary of State within ten
days of presentment. The failure to so file shall not prevent such
a bill from becoming a law.
(c) In the event a bill is passed over the Governor’s veto, such
bill shall be filed with the Secretary of State without further
presentment to the Governor, provided that, in the event of such
passage over the Governor’s veto in the next succeeding
General Assembly, the passage shall be deemed to have been
the action of the General Assembly which initially passed such
bill.
(History: As Amended November 7, 1972; November 6, 1990).

Section 15. The Governor shall transact all necessary
business with the officers of government, and may require
information in writing from the officers of the administrative
department, upon any subject relating to the duties of their
respective offices.

Section 16. The Governor shall take care that the laws are
faithfully executed.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984).

Section 17. The Governor may grant reprieves,
commutations, and pardons, after conviction, for all offenses
except treason and cases of impeachment, subject to such
regulations as may be provided by law. Upon conviction for
treason, the Governor may suspend the execution of the
sentence, until the case has been reported to the General
Assembly, at its next meeting, when the General Assembly
shall either grant a pardon, commute the sentence, direct the
execution of the sentence, or grant a further reprieve. The
Governor may remit fines and forfeitures, under such
regulations as may be provided by law; and shall report to the
General Assembly, at its next meeting, each case of reprieve,
commutation, or pardon granted, and also the names of all
persons in whose favor remission of fines and forfeitures were
made, and the several amounts remitted; provided, however, the
General Assembly may, by law, constitute a council composed
of officers of State, without whose advice and consent the
Governor may not grant pardons, in any case, except those left
to his sole power by law.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984).

Section 18. When, during a recess of the General Assembly,
a vacancy shall happen in any office, the appointment to which
is vested in the General Assembly; or when, at any time, a
vacancy shall have occurred in any other State office, or in the
office of Judge of any Court; the Governor shall fill such
vacancy, by appointment, which shall expire, when a successor
shall have been elected and qualified.

Section 19.
(Repealed November 6, 1984).

Section 20. Should the seat of government become
dangerous from disease or a common enemy, the Governor may
convene the General Assembly at any other place.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984).

Section 21. The Lieutenant Governor shall, by virtue of his
office, be President of the Senate; have a right, when in
committee of the whole, to join in debate, and to vote on all
subjects; and, whenever the Senate shall be equally divided, he
shall give the casting vote.

Section 22. The Governor shall, at stated times, receive for
his services a compensation, which shall neither be increased
nor diminished, during the term for which he shall have been
elected.

Section 23. The Lieutenant Governor, while he shall act as
President of the Senate, shall receive, for his services, the same
compensation as the Speaker of the House of Representatives;
and any person, acting as Governor, shall receive the
compensation attached to the office of Governor.

Section 24. Neither the Governor nor Lieutenant Governor
shall be eligible to any other office, during the term for which
he shall have been elected.

ARTICLE 6.
Administrative.

Section 1. There shall be elected, by the voters of the state,
a Secretary, an Auditor and a Treasurer of State, who shall,
severally, hold their offices for four years. They shall perform
such duties as may be enjoined by law; and no person shall be
eligible to either of said offices, more than eight years in any
period of twelve years.
(History: As Amended November 3, 1970)

Section 2. (a) There shall be elected, in each county by the
voters thereof, at the time of holding general elections, a Clerk
of the Circuit Court, Auditor, Recorder, Treasurer, Sheriff,
Coroner, and Surveyor, who shall, severally, hold their offices
for four years.
(b) The General Assembly may provide by law for uniform
dates for beginning the terms of the county officials listed in
subsection (a). If the General Assembly enacts a law to provide
a uniform date for beginning the terms of a county official listed
in subsection (a), the General Assembly may provide that the
term of each county official initially elected after enactment of
the law to provide the uniform date for beginning the terms of
the county official is for less than four years in order to
establish a uniform schedule of dates for the beginning of terms
for the office. However, after the initial election for each office,
the term for that office shall be for four years.
(c) No person shall be eligible to the office of Clerk, Auditor,
Recorder, Treasurer, Sheriff, or Coroner more than eight years
in any period of twelve years.
(History: As Amended November 4, 1952; November 6, 1984;
November 2, 2004).

Section 3. Such other county and township officers as may
be necessary, shall be elected, or appointed, in such manner as
may be prescribed by law.

Section 4. No person shall be elected, or appointed, as a
county officer, who is not an elector of the county and who has
not been an inhabitant of the county one year next preceding his
election or appointment.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984)

Section 5. (a) The Governor, and the Secretary, Auditor, and
Treasurer of State, shall severally keep the public records,
books, and papers, in any manner relating to their respective
offices, at the seat of government.
(b) The Governor shall reside at the seat of government.
(History: As Amended November 3, 1998)

Section 6. All county, township, and town officers, shall
reside within their respective counties, townships, and towns;
and shall keep their respective offices at such places therein,
and perform such duties, as may be directed by law.

Section 7. All State officers shall, for crime, incapacity, or
negligence, be liable to be removed from office, either by
impeachment by the House of Representatives, to be tried by
the Senate, or by a joint resolution of the General Assembly;
two-thirds of the members elected to each branch voting, in
either case, therefor.

Section 8. All State, county, township, and town officers,
may be impeached, or removed from office, in such manner as
may be prescribed by law.

Section 9. Vacancies in county, township, and town offices,
shall be filled in such manner as may be prescribed by law.

Section 10. The General Assembly may confer upon the
boards doing county business in the several counties, powers of
a local, administrative character.

Section 11.
(Repealed November 6, 1984).

ARTICLE 7.
Judicial.

Section 1. Judicial Power. The judicial power of the State
shall be vested in one Supreme Court, one Court of Appeals,
Circuit Courts, and such other courts as the General Assembly
may establish.
(History: As Amended March 14, 1881; November 3, 1970).

Section 2. Supreme Court. The Supreme Court shall consist
of the Chief Justice of the State and not less than four nor more
than eight associate justices; a majority of whom shall form a
quorum. The court may appoint such personnel as may be
necessary.
(History: As Amended November 3, 1970).

Section 3. Chief Justice. The Chief Justice of the State shall
be selected by the judicial nominating commission from the
members of the Supreme Court and he shall retain that office
for a period of five years, subject to reappointment in the same
manner, except that a member of the Court may resign the
office of Chief Justice without resigning from the Court. During
a vacancy in the office of Chief Justice caused by absence,
illness, incapacity or resignation all powers and duties of that
office shall devolve upon the member of the Supreme Court
who is senior in length of service and if equal in length of
service the determination shall be by lot until such time as the
cause of the vacancy is terminated or the vacancy is filled.
The Chief Justice of the State shall appoint such persons as
the General Assembly by law may provide for the
administration of his office. The Chief Justice shall have
prepared and submit to the General Assemblyregular reports on
the condition of the courts and such other reports as may be
requested.
(History: As Amended November 3, 1970).

Section 4. The Supreme Court shall have no original
jurisdiction except in admission to the practice of law;
discipline or disbarment of those admitted; the unauthorized
practice of law; discipline, removal and retirement of justices
and judges; supervision of the exercise of jurisdiction by the
other courts of the State; and issuance of writs necessary or
appropriate in aid of its jurisdiction. The Supreme Court shall
exercise appellate jurisdiction under such terms and conditions
as specified by rules except that appeals from a judgment
imposing a sentence of death shall be taken directly to the
Supreme Court. The Supreme Court shall have, in all appeals
of criminal cases, the power to review all questions of law and
to review and revise the sentence imposed.
(History: As Amended November 3, 1970; November 8, 1988;
November 7, 2000).

Section 5. Court of Appeals. The Court of Appeals shall
consist of as many geographic districts and sit at such locations
as the General Assembly shall determine to be necessary. Each
geographic district of the Court shall consist of three judges.
The judges of each geographic district shall appoint such
personnel as the General Assembly may provide by law.
(History: As Amended November 3, 1970).

Section 6. Jurisdiction of Court of Appeals. The Court shall
have no original jurisdiction, except that it may be authorized
by rules of the Supreme Court to review directly decisions of
administrative agencies. In all other cases, it shall exercise
appellate jurisdiction under such terms and conditions as the
Supreme Court shall specify by rules which shall, however,
provide in all cases an absolute right to one appeal and to the
extent provided by rule, review and revision of sentences for
defendants in all criminal cases.
(History: As Amended November 3, 1970).

Section 7. Judicial Circuits. The State shall, from time to
time, be divided into judicial circuits; and a Judge for each
circuit shall be elected by the voters thereof. He shall reside
within the circuit and shall have been duly admitted to practice
law by the Supreme Court of Indiana; he shall hold his office
for the term of six years, if he so long behaves well.
(History: As Amended November 3, 1970).

Section 8. Circuit Courts. The Circuit Courts shall have such
civil and criminal jurisdiction as may be prescribed by law.
(History: As Amended November 3, 1970).

Section 9. Judicial Nominating Commission. There shall be
one judicial nominating commission for the Supreme Court and
Court of Appeals. This commission shall, in addition, be the
commission on judicial qualifications for the Supreme Court
and Court of Appeals.
The judicial nominating commission shall consist of seven
members, a majority of whom shall form a quorum, one of
whom shall be the Chief Justice of the State or a Justice of the
Supreme Court whom he may designate, who shall act as
chairman. Those admitted to the practice of law shall elect three
of their number to serve as members of said commission. All
elections shall be in such manner as the General Assemblymay
provide. The Governor shall appoint to the commission three
citizens, not admitted to the practice of law. The terms of office
and compensation for members of a judicial nominating
commission shall be fixed by the General Assembly. No
member of a judicial nominating commission other than the
Chief Justice or his designee shall hold anyother salaried public
office. No member shall hold an office in a political party or
organization. No member of the judicial nominating
commission shall be eligible for appointment to a judicial office
so long as he is a member of the commission and for a period
of three years thereafter.
(History: As Amended November 8, 1960; November 3, 1970).

Section 10. Selection of Justices of the Supreme Court and
Judges of the Court of Appeals. A vacancy in a judicial office
in the Supreme Court or Court of Appeals shall be filled by the
Governor, without regard to political affiliation, from a list of
three nominees presented to him by the judicial nominating
commission. If the Governor shall fail to make an appointment
from the list within sixty days from the day it is presented to
him, the appointment shall be made by the Chief Justice or the
acting Chief Justice from the same list.
To be eligible for nomination as a justice of the Supreme
Court or Judge of the Court of Appeals, a person must be
domiciled within the geographic district, a citizen of the United
States, admitted to the practice of law in the courts of the State
for a period of not less than ten (10) years or must have served
as a judge of a circuit, superior or criminal court of the State of
Indiana for a period of not less than five (5) years.
(History: As Amended November 3, 1970).

Section 11. Tenure of Justices of Supreme Court and Judges
of the Court of Appeals. A justice of the Supreme Court or
Judge of the Court of Appeals shall serve until the next general
election following the expiration of two years from the date of
appointment, and subject to approval or rejection by the
electorate, shall continue to serve for terms of ten years, so long
as he retains his office. In the case of a justice of the Supreme
Court, the electorate of the entire state shall vote on the
question of approval or rejection. In the case of judges of the
Court of Appeals the electorate of the geographic district in
which he serves shall vote on the question of approval or
rejection.
Every such justice and judge shall retire at the age specified
by statute in effect at the commencement of his current term.
Every such justice or judge is disqualified from acting as a
judicial officer, without loss of salary, while there is pending
(1) an indictment or information charging him in any court in
the United States with a crime punishable as a felony under the
laws of Indiana or the United States, or (2) a recommendation
to the Supreme Court by the commission on judicial
qualifications for his removal or retirement.
On recommendation of the commission on judicial
qualifications or on its own motion, the Supreme Court may
suspend such justice or judge from office without salary when
in any court in the United States he pleads guilty or no contest
or is found guilty of a crime punishable as a felony under the
laws of Indiana or the United States, or of any other crime that
involves moral turpitude under that law. If his conviction is
reversed, suspension terminates and he shall be paid his salary
for the period of suspension. If he is suspended and his
conviction becomes final the Supreme Court shall remove him
from office.
On recommendation of the commission on judicial
qualifications the Supreme Court may (1) retire such justice or
judge for disability that seriously interferes with the
performance of his duties and is or is likely to become
permanent, and (2) censure or remove such justice or judge, for
action occurring not more than six years prior to the
commencement of his current term, when such action
constitutes willful misconduct in office, willful and persistent
failure to perform his duties, habitual intemperance, or conduct
prejudicial to the administration of justice that brings the
judicial office into disrepute.
A justice or judge so retired by the Supreme Court shall be
considered to have retired voluntarily. A justice or judge so
removed by the Supreme Court is ineligible for judicial office
and pending further order of the Court he is suspended from
practicing law in this State.
Upon receipt by the Supreme Court of any such
recommendation, the Court shall hold a hearing, at which such
justice or judge is entitled to be present, and make such
determinations as shall be required. No justice shall participate
in the determination of such hearing when it concerns himself.
The Supreme Court shall make rules implementing this
section and provide for convening of hearings. Hearings and
proceedings shall be public upon request of the justice or judge
whom it concerns.
No such justice or judge shall, during his term of office,
engage in the practice of law, run for elective office other than
a judicial office, directly or indirectlymake any contribution to,
or hold any office in, a political party or organization or take
part in any political campaign.
(History: As Amended November 4, 1952; November 3, 1970).

Section 12. Substitution of Judges. The General Assembly
may provide, by law, that the Judge of one circuit may hold the
Courts of another circuit, in cases of necessity or convenience;
and in case of temporary inability of any Judge, from sickness
or other cause, to hold the Courts in his circuit, provision may
be made, by law, for holding such courts.
(History: As Amended November 3, 1970).

Section 13. Removal of Circuit Court Judges and
Prosecuting Attorneys. Any Judge of the Circuit Court or
Prosecuting Attorney, who shall have been convicted of
corruption or other high crime, may, on information in the name
of the State, be removed from office by the Supreme Court, or
in such other manner as may be prescribed by law.
(History: As Amended November 3, 1970).

Section 14.
(Repealed November 6, 1984).

Section 15. No Limitation on Term of Office. The provisions
of Article 15, Section 2, prohibiting terms of office longer than
four years, shall not apply to justices and judges.
(History: As Amended November 3, 1970).

Section 16. Prosecuting Attorneys. There shall be elected in
each judicial circuit bythe voters thereof a prosecuting attorney,
who shall have been admitted to the practice of law in this State
before his election, who shall hold his office for four years, and
whose term of office shall begin on the first day of January next
succeeding his election. The election of prosecuting attorneys
under this section shall be held at the time of holding the
general election in the year 1974 and each four years thereafter.
(History: As Amended November 3, 1970).

Section 17. Grand Jury. The General Assembly may modify,
or abolish, the grand jury system.
(History: As Amended November 3, 1970).

Section 18. Criminal Prosecutions.All criminal prosecutions
shall be carried on in the name, and by the authority of the state;
and the style of all process shall be: “The State of Indiana.”
(History: As Amended November 3, 1970).

Section 19. Pay. The Justices of Supreme Court and Judges
of the Court of Appeals and of the Circuit Courts shall at stated
times receive a compensation which shall not be diminished
during their continuance in office.
(History: As Amended November 3, 1970).

Section 20.
(History: Repealed November 6, 1984. The schedule adopted
with the November 3, 1970, amendment to Article 7 was
stricken out by the November 6, 1984, amendment).

Section 21.
(History: Repealed November 8, 1932).

ARTICLE 8.
Education.

Section 1. Knowledge and learning, generally diffused
throughout a community, being essential to the preservation of
a free government; it shall be the duty of the General Assembly
to encourage, by all suitable means, moral, intellectual,
scientific, and agricultural improvement; and to provide, by
law, for a general and uniform system of Common Schools,
wherein tuition shall be without charge, and equally open to all.

Section 2. The Common School fund shall consist of the
Congressional Township fund, and the lands belonging thereto;
The Surplus Revenue fund;
The Saline fund and the lands belonging thereto;
The Bank Tax fund, and the fund arising from the one
hundred and fourteenth section of the charter of the State Bank
of Indiana;
The fund to be derived from the sale of County Seminaries,
and the moneys and property heretofore held for such
Seminaries; from the fines assessed for breaches of the penal
laws of the State; and from all forfeitures which may accrue;
All lands and other estate which shall escheat to the State, for
want of heirs or kindred entitled to the inheritance;
All lands that have been, or may hereafter be, granted to the
State, where no special purpose is expressed in the grant, and
the proceeds of the sales thereof; including the proceeds of the
sales of the Swamp Lands, granted to the State of Indiana by the
act of Congress of the twenty eighth of September, eighteen
hundred and fifty, after deducting the expense of selecting and
draining the same;
Taxes on the property of corporations, that may be assessed
by the General Assembly for common school purposes.

Section 3. The principal of the Common School fund shall
remain a perpetual fund, which may be increased, but shall
never be diminished; and the income thereof shall be inviolably
appropriated to the support of Common Schools, and to no
other purpose whatever.

Section 4. The General Assembly shall invest, in some safe
and profitable manner, all such portions of the Common School
fund, as have not heretofore been entrusted to the several
counties; and shall make provision, by law, for the distribution,
among the several counties, of the interest thereof.

Section 5. If any county shall fail to demand its proportion of
such interest, for Common School purposes, the same shall be
reinvested, for the benefit of such county.

Section 6. The several counties shall be held liable for the
preservation of so much of the said fund as may be entrusted to
them, and for the payment of the annual interest thereon.

Section 7. All trust funds, held by the State, shall remain
inviolate, and be faithfully and exclusively applied to the
purposes for which the trust was created.

Section 8. There shall be a State Superintendent of Public
Instruction, whose method of selection, tenure, duties and
compensation shall be prescribed by law.
(History:AsAmended November 7, 1972. The schedule adopted
with the 1972 amendment to Article 8, Section 8 was stricken
out by the November 6, 1984, amendment)

ARTICLE 9.
State Institutions.

Section 1. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to
provide, by law, for the support of institutions for the education
of the deaf, the mute, and the blind; and for the treatment of the
insane.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984).

Section 2. The General Assembly shall provide institutions
for the correction and reformation of juvenile offenders.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984).

Section 3. The counties may provide farms, as an asylum for
those persons who, by reason of age, infirmity, or other
misfortune, have claims upon the sympathies and aid of society.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984).

ARTICLE 10.
Finance.

Section 1. (a) Subject to this section, the General Assembly
shall provide, by law, for a uniform and equal rate of property
assessment and taxation and shall prescribe regulations to
secure a just valuation for taxation of all property, both real and
personal.
(b) A provision of this section permitting the General
Assembly to exempt property from taxation also permits the
General Assembly to exercise its legislative power to enact
property tax deductions and credits for the property. The
General Assembly may impose reasonable filing requirements
for an exemption, deduction, or credit.
(c) The General Assembly may exempt from property
taxation any property in any of the following classes:
(1) Propertybeing used for municipal, educational, literary,
scientific, religious, or charitable purposes.
(2) Tangible personal property other than property being
held as an investment.
(3) Intangible personal property.
(4) Tangible property, including curtilage, used as a
principal place of residence by an:
(A) owner of the property;
(B) individual who is buying the tangible propertyunder
a contract; or
(C) individual who has a beneficial interest in the owner
of the tangible property.
(d) The General Assembly may exempt any motor vehicles,
mobile homes (not otherwise exempt under this section),
airplanes, boats, trailers, or similar property, provided that an
excise tax in lieu of the property tax is substituted therefor.
(e) This subsection applies to property taxes first due and
payable in 2012 and thereafter. The following definitions apply
to subsection (f):
(1) “Other residential property” means tangible property
(other than tangible property described in subsection
(c)(4)) that is used for residential purposes.
(2) “Agricultural land” means land devoted to agricultural
use.
(3) “Other real property” means real property that is not
tangible property described in subsection (c)(4), is not
other residential property, and is not agricultural land.
(f) This subsection applies to property taxes first due and
payable in 2012 and thereafter. The General Assembly shall, by
law, limit a taxpayer’s property tax liability as follows:
(1) A taxpayer’s property tax liability on tangible property
described in subsection (c)(4) may not exceed one percent
(1%) of the gross assessed value of the property that is the
basis for the determination of property taxes.
(2) A taxpayer’s property tax liability on other residential
property may not exceed two percent (2%) of the gross
assessed value of the property that is the basis for the
determination of property taxes.
(3) A taxpayer’s property tax liability on agricultural land
may not exceed two percent (2%) of the gross assessed
value of the land that is the basis for the determination of
property taxes.
(4) A taxpayer’s propertytax liability on other real property
may not exceed three percent (3%) of the gross assessed
value of the property that is the basis for the determination
of property taxes.
(5) A taxpayer’s property tax liability on personal property
(other than personal property that is tangible property
described in subsection (c)(4) or personal property that is
otherresidential property)within a particular taxingdistrict
may not exceed three percent (3%) of the gross assessed
value of the taxpayer’s personal property that is the basis
for the determination of property taxes within the taxing
district.
(g) This subsection applies to property taxes first due and
payable in 2012 and thereafter. Property taxes imposed after
being approved by the voters in a referendum shall not be
considered for purposes of calculating the limits to property tax
liability under subsection (f).
(h) As used in this subsection, “eligible county” means only
a county for which the General Assembly determines in 2008
that limits to property tax liability as described in subsection (f)
are expected to reduce in 2010 the aggregate property tax
revenue that would otherwise be collected by all units of local
government and school corporations in the county by at least
twenty percent (20%). The General Assembly may, by law,
provide that property taxes imposed in an eligible county to pay
debt service or make lease payments for bonds or leases issued
or entered into before July 1, 2008, shall not be considered for
purposes of calculating the limits to property tax liability under
subsection (f). Such a law may not apply after December 31,
2019.
(History: As Amended November 8, 1966; November 2, 2004;
November 2, 2010).

Section 2. All the revenues derived from the sale of any of
the public works belonging to the State, and from the net annual
income thereof, and any surplus that may, at any time, remain
in the Treasury, derived from taxation for general State
purposes, after the payment of the ordinary expenses of the
government, and of the interest on bonds of the State, other than
Bank bonds; shall be annually applied, under the direction of
the General Assembly, to the payment of the principal of the
Public Debt.

Section 3. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but
in pursuance of appropriations made by law.

Section 4. An accurate statement of the receipts and
expenditures of the public money, shall be published with the
laws of each regular session of the General Assembly.

Section 5. (a) No law shall authorize any debt to be
contracted, on behalf of the State, except in the following cases:
to meet casual deficits in the revenue; to pay the interest on the
State Debt; to repel invasion, suppress insurrection, or, if
hostilities be threatened, provide for the public defense.
(b) The following definitions apply to this section only for
purposes of the limits on the State budget under this section:
(1) “Revenue” means all income received by the state
general fund and all other state funds, excluding the
proceeds of bonds or other loans.
(2) “Expense” means the ordinary operating costs of State
government, including any debt service payments made
during the biennial budget period.
(c) The total amount of expense appropriations enacted by
the General Assembly for a biennial budget may not exceed the
estimated revenue of the State in the biennial budget period.
(d) A State budget enacted by the General Assembly must
appropriate money for the State’s prefunded pension funds in
the amount necessary to actuarially fund the accrued liability of
all such pension funds during the budget period.
(e) If expenses exceed actual revenue received by the State
when reconciled at the close of a biennial budget period, the
subsequent biennial budget must subtract any shortfall from the
projected revenue available for that subsequent biennial budget.
(f) The requirements under subsections (c) and (d) may be
suspended if at least two-thirds of the members of the House of
Representatives and at least two-thirds of the members of the
Senate vote to suspend the requirement.
(g) A court that orders a remedy pursuant to any case or
controversy arising under this section may not order any
remedies other than a declaratory judgment or such other
remedies that are specifically authorized by the General
Assembly in a law implementing this section.
(History: Amended November 6, 2018).

Section 6. No county shall subscribe for stock in any
incorporated company, unless the same be paid for at the time
of such subscription; nor shall any county loan its credit to any
incorporated company, nor borrow money for the purpose of
taking stock in any such company; nor shall the General
Assembly ever, on behalf of the State, assume the debts of any
county, city, town, or township; nor of any corporation
whatever.

Section 7. No law or resolution shall ever be passed by the
General Assembly of the State of Indiana, that shall recognize
any liability of this State to pay or redeem any certificate of
stock issued in pursuance of an act entitled “An Act to provide
for the funded debt of the State of Indiana, and for the
completion of the Wabash and Erie Canal to Evansville,”
passed January 19th, 1846; and an act supplemental to said act,
passed January 29th, 1847, which, by the provisions of the said
acts, or either of them, shall be payable exclusively from the
proceeds of the canal lands, and the tolls and revenues of the
canal, in said acts mentioned, and no such certificates or stocks
shall ever be paid by this State.
(History: Added February 18, 1873).

Section 8. The general assembly may levy and collect a tax
upon income, from whatever source derived, at such rates, in
such manner, and with such exemptions as may be prescribed
by law.
(History: Added November 8, 1932).

ARTICLE 11.
Corporations.

Section 1. The General Assembly shall not have power to
establish, or incorporate, any bank or banking company, or
moneyed institution, for the purpose of issuing bills of credit,
or bills payable to order or bearer, except under the conditions
prescribed in this Constitution.

Section 2. No banks shall be established otherwise than
under a general banking law, except as provided in the fourth
section of this article.

Section 3. If the General Assembly shall enact a general
banking law, such law shall provide for the registry and
countersigning, by an officer of State, of all paper credit
designed to be circulated as money; and ample collateral
security, readily convertible into specie, for the redemption of
the same in gold or silver, shall be required; which collateral
security shall be under the control of the proper officer or
officers of State.

Section 4. The General Assembly may also charter a bank
with branches, without collateral security as required in the
preceding section.

Section 5. If the General Assembly shall establish a bank
with branches, the branches shall be mutually responsible for
each other’s liabilities upon all paper credit issued as money.

Section 6.
(History: Repealed November 5, 1940).

Section 7. All bills or notes issued as money shall be, at all
times, redeemable in gold or silver; and no law shall be passed,
sanctioning, directly or indirectly, the suspension, by any bank
or banking company, of specie payments.

Section 8. Holders of bank notes shall be entitled, in case of
insolvency, to preference of payment over all other creditors.

Section 9. No bank shall receive, directly or indirectly, a
greater rate of interest than shall be allowed, by law, to
individuals loaning money.

Section 10.
(History: Repealed November 5, 1940).

Section 11. The General Assembly is not prohibited from
investing the Trust Funds in a bank with branches; but in case
of such investment, the safety of the same shall be guarantied
by unquestionable security.

Section 12. The State shall not be a stockholder in any bank;
nor shall the credit of the State ever be given, or loaned, in aid
of any person, association or corporation; nor shall the State
become a stockholder in any corporation or
association.However, the General Assembly may by law, with
limitations and regulations, provide that prohibitions in this
section do not apply to a public employee retirement fund.
(History: As Amended November 5, 1996).

Section 13. Corporations, other than banking, shall not be
created by special act, but may be formed under general laws.

Section 14. Dues from corporations shall be secured by such
individual liability of the stockholders, or other means, as may
be prescribed by law.
(History: As Amended November 5, 1940).

ARTICLE 12.
Militia.

Section 1. A militia shall be provided and shall consist of all
persons over the age of seventeen (17) years, except those
persons who may be exempted by the laws of the United States
or of this state. The militia may be divided into active and
inactive classes and consist of such military organizations as
may be provided by law.
(History: As Amended November 3, 1936; November 5, 1974).

Section 2. The Governor is Commander-in-Chief of the
militia and other military forces of this state.
(History: As Amended November 5, 1974).

Section 3. There shall be an Adjutant General, who shall be
appointed by the Governor.
(History: As Amended November 5, 1974).

Section 4. No person, conscientiously opposed to bearing
arms, shall be compelled to do so in the militia.
(History: As Amended November 5, 1974).

Section 5.
(History: Repealed November 5, 1974).

Section 6.
(History: Repealed November 5, 1974).

ARTICLE 13.
Indebtedness.

Section 1. No political or municipal corporation in this State
shall ever become indebted, in any manner or for any purpose
to an amount, in the aggregate, exceeding two per centum on
the value of the taxable property within such corporation, to be
ascertained by the last assessment for State and county taxes,
previous to the incurring of such indebtedness; and all bonds or
obligations, in excess of such amount, given by such
corporations, shall be void: Provided, That in time of war,
foreign invasion, or other great public calamity, on petition of
a majority of the property owners in number and value, within
the limits of such corporation, the public authorities, in their
discretion, may incur obligations necessary for the public
protection and defense to such amount as may be requested in
such petition.
(History: As Amended March 14, 1881).

Section. 2.
(History: Repealed March 14, 1881).

Section 3.
(History: Repealed March 14, 1881).

Section 4.
(History: Repealed March 14, 1881).

ARTICLE 14.
Boundaries.

Section 1. In order that the boundaries of the State may be
known and established, it is hereby ordained and declared, that
the State of Indiana is bounded, on the East, by the meridian
line, which forms the western boundary of the State of Ohio; on
the South, by the Ohio river, from the mouth of the Great
Miami river to the mouth of the Wabash river; on the West, by
a line drawn along the middle of the Wabash river, from its
mouth to a point where a due north line, drawn from the town
of Vincennes, would last touch the north-western shore of said
Wabash river; and, thence, by a due north line, until the same
shall intersect an east and west line, drawn through a point ten
miles north of the southern extreme of Lake Michigan; on the
North, by said east and west line, until the same shall intersect
the first mentioned meridian line, which forms the western
boundary of the State of Ohio.

Section 2. The State of Indiana shall possess jurisdiction and
sovereignty co-extensive with the boundaries declared in the
preceding section; and shall have concurrent jurisdiction, in
civil and criminal cases, with the State of Kentucky on the Ohio
river, and with the State of Illinois on the Wabash river, so far
as said rivers form the common boundary between this State
and said States respectively.

ARTICLE 15.
Miscellaneous.

Section 1. All officers, whose appointment is not otherwise
provided for in this Constitution, shall be chosen in such
manner as now is, or hereafter may be, prescribed by law.

Section 2. When the duration of any office is not provided
for by this Constitution, it may be declared by law; and, if not
so declared, such office shall be held during the pleasure of the
authority making the appointment. But the General Assembly
shall not create any office, the tenure of which shall be longer
than four years.

Section 3. Whenever it is provided in this Constitution, or
in any law which may be hereafter passed, that any officer,
other than a member of the General Assembly, shall hold his
office for any given term, the same shall be construed to mean,
that such officer shall hold his office for such term, and until his
successor shall have been elected and qualified.

Section 4. Every person elected or appointed to any office
under this Constitution, shall, before entering on the duties
thereof, take an oath or affirmation, to support the Constitution
of this State, and of the United States, and also an oath of
office.

Section 5. There shall be a Seal of State, kept by the
Governor for official purposes, which shall be called the Seal
of the State of Indiana.

Section 6. All commissions shall issue in the name of the
State, shall be signed by the Governor, sealed with the State
Seal, and attested by the Secretary of State.

Section 7. No county shall be reduced to an area less than
four hundred square miles; nor shall any county, under that
area, be further reduced.

Section 8.
(History: Repealed November 8, 1988).

Section 9. The following grounds owned by the State in
Indianapolis, namely: the State House Square, the Governor’s
Circle, and so much of out-lot numbered one hundred and
forty-seven, as lies north of the arm of the Central Canal, shall
not be sold or leased.

Section 10. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly, to
provide for the permanent enclosure and preservation of the
Tippecanoe Battle Ground.

ARTICLE 16.
Amendments.

Section 1. (a) An amendment to this Constitution may be
proposed in either branch of the General Assembly. If the
amendment is agreed to by a majority of the members elected
to each of the two houses, the proposed amendment shall, with
the yeas and nays thereon, be entered on their journals, and
referred to the General Assembly to be chosen at the next
general election.
(b) If, in the General Assembly so next chosen, the proposed
amendment is agreed to by a majority of all the members
elected to each House, then the General Assembly shall submit
the amendment to the electors of the State at the next general
election.
(c) If a majority of the electors voting on the amendment
ratify the amendment, the amendment becomes a part of this
Constitution.
(History: As Amended November 3, 1998).

Section 2. If two or more amendments shall be submitted at
the same time, they shall be submitted in such manner that the
electors shall vote for or against each of such amendments
separately.
(History: As Amended November 8, 1966).
SCHEDULE
Whenever a portion of the citizens of the counties of Perry
and Spencer, shall deem it expedient to form, of the contiguous
territory of said counties, a new County, it shall be the duty of
those interested in the organization of such new county, to lay
off the same, by proper metes and bounds, of equal portions as
nearly as practicable, not to exceed one-third of the territory of
each of said counties. The proposal to create such new county
shall be submitted to the voters of said counties, at a general
election, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law. And if
a majority of all the votes given at said election, shall be in
favor of the organization of said new county, it shall be the duty
of the General Assembly to organize the same, out of the
territory thus designated.
The General Assembly may alter or amend the charter of
Clarksville, and make such regulations as may be necessary for
carrying into effect the objects contemplated in granting the
same; and the funds belonging to said town shall be applied,
according to the intention of the grantor.
(History: As Amended November 6, 1984).